Pipe project portfolio

November 2010 » Features » PROGRESSIVE ENGINEERING
Annual report highlights recent applications for a wide range of available pipe types
Bob Drake

CE News presents this annual special report to help civil engineers begin sorting through all of the pipe choices they face when designing water and tunnel projects. National associations representing concrete, concrete pressure, corrugated steel, ductile iron, fiberglass, polyethylene, PVC, and vitrified clay pipe manufacturers provided information about recent projects featuring each type of pipe.

Pipe manufacturer lists have been compiled from association member lists as well as outside sources. Contact manufacturers for information about product lines, specifications, and manufacturing and distribution locations. To update, correct, or add a listing, contact Editor Bob Drake at bdrake@stagnitomedia.com.

 

Concrete pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recent significant project that used concrete pipe.

A: A 5-1/2-mile portion of Utah State Route 92 is being reconstructed and widened in 2010 as an expressway to improve mobility. The design-build project includes commuter lanes to provide direct access to I-15 without signalized intersections. Since post-installation testing of joints was a critical specification for the project, nearly 12 miles of concrete pipe were used based on the pipe’s ability to meet the tests.

Approximately 300 feet of 72-inch, Class 5 concrete jacking pipe was used on the Utah SR-92 project.

Different types of concrete pipe — reinforced, non-reinforced, and jacking pipe — were used for different sections of the project, all with gasketed joints for a water-tight connection. Nearly eight miles of 18-inch to 36-inch-diameter non-reinforced concrete pipe (NRCP) are being used on the project. NRCP was chosen for its cost, which was lower than the alternative materials. Additionally, the designer and contractor chose to use in-line concrete tees instead of manholes and cleanouts. These underground junctions saved money and provided convenient access locations for future maintenance. This project was an example that design-build projects need to be built to a performance standard.

Q: What characteristics of concrete pipe made it particularly suitablefor this project?

A: Approximately 300 feet of 72-inch, Class 5 concrete jacking pipe was used on the SR-92 project. The pipe was made with self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for improved outer smoothness and end squareness. The finished grade of the jacked pipe was constructed to within 0.02 inches of the design grade, demonstrating that concrete pipe can be jacked without an exterior casing. Where standard open-excavation installation techniques may not be feasible, concrete jacking pipe becomes an option. The use of SCC makes for a smooth pipe exterior that allows the contractor to push the pipe further with less force. The lubricant connections that were designed into the pipe allow the contractor to pump lubricant onto the outer surface if needed.

Although steel bell bands are not required, they allow a higher surface area of the pipe and much better end squareness between joints. Both of these features provide the contractor with additional stability and directional control that helps control alignment and grade. By providing a greater surface area of concrete for the connection between joints than a typical bell and spigot joint, the pipe has a much higher axial thrust capacity.

Q: What performance properties of concrete pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: Reinforced concrete pipe has more than one jointing system to meet design needs. Key performance characteristics of joint design include resistance to infiltration and exfiltration; accommodation of lateral or longitudinal movement; strength to handle shear or vertical movement; pipeline continuity and smooth flow line; and ease of installation.

Concrete Pipe Manufacturers

American Concrete Pipe Co.
www.americanconcretepipe.com

Americast
www.americastusa.com

Ameron International
www.ameron.com

Atlantic Pipe Corp.
www.atlanticpipe.com

Cretex Concrete Products Midwest
www.cretexmidwest.com

Foltz Concrete Pipe Co.
www.foltzconcretepipe.com

Geneva Pipe
www.geneva-pipe.com

Hanson
www.hansonpipeandprecast.com

 

Independent Concrete Pipe Co.
www.icpipe.com

Johnson Concrete Co.
www.johnsoncmu.com

Munro Concrete Products, Ltd.
www.munroconcrete.com

Oldcastle Precast
www.oldcastleprecast.com

Quality Culvert
www.qualityculvert.com

Rinker Materials
www.rinkerpipe.com

Sherman-Dixie Concrete Industries
www.shermandixie.com

Vianini Pipe Inc.
www.vianinipipe.com 

Information contributed by the American Concrete Pipe Association (www.concrete-pipe.org).

 

Concrete pressure pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recentsignificant project that usedconcrete pressure pipe.

The Canadian River Municipal Water Authority selected 54-inch-diameter, bar-wrapped concrete cylinder pipe for a new 12-1/2-mile-long raw water transmission pipeline.

A: Hanson Pressure Pipe supplied Phase 3 transmission pipeline consisting of 67,000 linear feet of 54-inch bar-wrapped concrete cylinder pipe (AWWA Standard C303) for the Canadian River Municipal Water Authority. This project was built and installed in 2009 and is located in Roberts County, north of Pampa, Texas. This new raw water transmission pipeline starts from the existing Pump Station 21 and extends eastward approximately 12-1/2 miles. Proposed pipe sizes were 42 inches and 48 inches in diameter; however, because of extremely favorable pricing of bar-wrapped pipe, the owner opted to upsize to 54 inches when costs came in significantly lower than original estimates. The consulting engineer for this pipeline is Freese and Nichols, Inc., in association with Parkhill, Smith and Cooper, Inc. The project was installed by Wright Construction Company, Inc.

Q: What characteristics of concrete pressure pipe made it particularly suitable for this project?

A: Bar-wrapped concrete cylinder pipe was specified because of its inherent strength as a composite structure, as well as its conservative design and rugged construction. Design economies offered by bar-wrapped pipe are important since each pipe section is designed to meet the requirements of its unique position in the pipeline with an appropriate safety factor and no wasteful overdesign. This product is manufactured and designed in accordance with the strict requirements of AWWA Standard C303 and AWWA Manual M9. The built-in strength and corrosion protection ensure a long life as the portland cement mortar coating provides maximum protection from corrosion.

Q: What performance propertiesof concrete pressure pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: In addition to the inherent strength and corrosion resistance of its unique composite structure, bar-wrapped concrete cylinder pipe comes with a steel Carnegie spigot and bell gasketed joint, thus eliminating long beam-related concerns typically associated with field-welded joints. Unlike other gasketed joints, the Carnegie joint has proven itself as the workhorse for the concrete pressure pipe industry for more than 80 years.

Concrete Pressure Pipe Manufacturers

Ameron International Corp.
www.ameron.com

Atlantic Pipe Corp.
www.atlanticpipe.com

Hanson Pressure Pipe
www.hansonpressurepipe.com

Munro Concrete Products, Ltd.
www.munroconcrete.com

Vianini Pipe, Inc.
www.vianinipipe.com

Information contributed by the American Concrete Pressure Pipe Association (www.acppa.org).

 

Corrugated steel pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recentsignificant project that usedcorrugated steel pipe.

A: The Telluride Regional Airport’s four-phase program for runway safety improvement, scheduled for completion by November 2012, consists of leveling the runway, widening the runway safety areas, installing Engineered Material Arresting Systems (EMAS), extending the take-off length to 7,070 feet, and adding an airport maintenance vehicle underpass beneath the runway. The project is being funded by the Telluride Regional Airport Authority (TRAA) with grants from the Federal Aviation Administration and the Colorado Division of Aeronautics. According to the airport manager, the new runway will provide a much safer take-off and landing environment; the reduced runway grade, wider safety areas, and EMAS will greatly increase the runway safety for all aircraft; and the maintenance vehicle tunnel will enhance safety for accessing the south side of the airport.

Corrugated steel pipe structural plate was used for a 660-foot-long tunnel at the Telluride Regional Airport that has a 23-foot span and a 19-foot rise.

Kimley-Horn & Associates worked with Terracon and the TRAA to find a structural plate product for the airport maintenance vehicle underpass that would allow for continued flow of maintenance vehicles below grade, eliminating conflicts with aircraft. There was a narrow window for construction because of heavy aircraft traffic and high elevation. A cost-effective underpass structure with a fast installation time was essential. The plan reconfigures the layout for the airport, better utilizing the land area while maintaining the scenic open space that surrounds the facility. These improvements will allow for larger regional commuter aircraft to land at the airport, bringing larger passenger loads and increasing the number of tourists.

Q: What characteristics of corrugated steel pipe made it particularlysuitable for this project?

A: Corrugated steel pipe structural plate (CSPSP) was chosen for the tunnel because it provided the strength, durability, and construction speed needed versus a conventional bridge or customized cast-in-place structure. R.E. Monks Construction Co. installed 660 linear feet of CSPSP that had a 23-foot span and a 19-foot rise. Plate Erectors assembled the plate structure. A shape control technician was onsite to monitor the structure until minimum backfill cover was obtained.

Q: What performance propertiesof corrugated steel pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: Corrugated steel pipe (CSP) has the strength, design flexibility, and durability to provide solutions to most any project. While the benefits of traceability give engineers, designers, and owners confidence in CSP’s reliable performance, its sustainability provides environmental benefits.

Corrugated Steel Pipe Manufacturers

Armtec, Ltd.
www.armtec.com

Atlantic Industries Ltd.
www.atlanticindustries.us

Atlantic Pipe Corp.
www.atlanticpipe.com

Big R Bridge
www.bigrbridge.com

C & K Johnson Industries, Inc.
www.ckjohnsonind.com

CONTECH Construction Products Inc.
www.contech-cpi.com

Dub Ross Co.
www.dubross.com

Edwards Culvert Co.
740-694-5096

Hawaii Concrete Products, Inc.
808-682-5639

Huron Tank and Culvert
www.huronculvert.com

Illowa Culvert and Supply
www.illowaculvert.com

J&J Drainage Products Co.
www.jjdrainage.com

Jennmar Specialty Products
www.jennmarspecialty.com

Jensen Bridge and Supply Co.
www.jensenbridge.com

Johnston Fargo Culvert, Inc.
www.johnstonculvert.com

Lane Enterprises, Inc.
www.lane-enterprises.com

Metal Culverts, Inc.
www.metalculverts.com

Pacific Corrugated Pipe Co.
www.pcpipe.com

Roscoe Culvert
www.roscoeculvert.com

Southeast Culvert, Inc.
www.southeastculvert.com

St. Regis Culvert
www.stregisculvert.com

Thompson Culvert Co.
www.thompsonculvert.com

Wyatt Resources, Inc.
www.wyattresources.com

Information contributed by the National Corrugated Steel Pipe Association (www.ncspa.org).

 

Ductile iron pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recentsignificant project that usedductile iron pipe.

A: Pittsfield Charter Township, Mich., used horizontal directional drilling (HDD) to install about 30,000 feet of 8-inch ductile iron pipe. This pipeline, designed by Stantec’s engineering offices in Ann Arbor, Mich., was installed to upgrade the existing township water system by providing an upsized replacement to an existing 6-inch pipeline. The township wanted a trenchless installation and Stantec’s evaluation determined that HDD was the most economic alternative. To ensure a long service life, the pipeline was installed using polyethylene encasement to protect the pipe from the possible effects of corrosion. The use of HDD allowed ductile iron pipe to be installed without open-cut trenches through the neighborhoods along the pipeline’s right-of-way.

In Pittsfield Township, Mich., 8-inch ductile iron pipe was assembled at the insertion point for pulling through the prepared bore-path. Polyethylene encasement of the exterior of the pipe was applied for corrosion control.

Q: What characteristics of ductile iron pipe made it particularly suitable for this project?

A: HDD installations with ductile iron pipe have an advantage compared with other pipe materials since the installation can be readily accomplished by either the cartridge method, used in the Pittsfield Township project, that is unique to segmented ductile iron pipe; or an assembled-line method where pipes are pre-assembled on an adjacent right of way, then pulled in as a single unit. Because the bulk density of empty ductile iron pipe is normally close to that of the soil/fluid slurry that is used, there may be very little normal force from gravity or buoyancy to increase friction against the walls of the bore path, reducing the pulling forces required. As a result, ductile iron pipe has been increasingly used as the material of choice in HDD installations. Ductile iron pipe’s proprietary restrained joint systems, as recommended by the pipe manufacturer, allow ductile iron pipe to be pulled through the bore path smoothly and quickly.

Q: What performance propertiesof ductile iron pipe set it apartfrom other types of pipe?

A: Ductile iron pipe’s strength allows designs with a high factor of safety and it makes everyday operations, such as installing service taps, safe and reliable. This strength also translates into durability, with more than 600 utilities having already enjoyed 100-plus years of service from their iron pipelines. Ductile iron’s joints allow field cutting and changing directions while minimizing the need for fittings. Ductile iron pipe typically has larger flow areas than other materials, requiring less pumping energy, thus conserving electricity. Ductile iron pipe is made almost entirely from recycled materials.

Ductile Iron Pipe Manufacturers

AMERICAN (American Cast Iron Pipe Co.)
www.american-usa.com

Atlantic States Cast Iron Pipe Co.
www.atlanticstates.com

CLOW Water Systems Co.
www.clowwater.com

Griffin Pipe Products Co.
www.griffinpipe.com

McWane Cast Iron Pipe Co.
www.mcwane.com

Pacific States Cast Iron Pipe Co.
www.pscipco.com

U.S. Pipe
www.uspipe.com

Information contributed by the Ductile Iron Pipe Research Association (www.dipra.org).

 

Fiberglass pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recent significant project that used fiberglass pipe.

A: The Czajka wastewater treatment plant in Warsaw, Poland, on the Vistula River will treat 80 percent of the Polish capital’s effluents. Because of the pipeline project’s size, it was divided into three phases — a 3-1/2-mile jack, a second 4,600-foot jack, and the third section, a river crossing. The pipes for all three phases are being supplied by HOBAS, and are the largest centrifugally cast fiberglass-reinforced polymer mortar (CCFRPM) pipes made to date. Phases one and three utilize 118-inch outside diameter pipes. The river crossing consists of two parallel, 63-inch-diameter lines installed within a 15-foot-diameter concrete tunnel.

Fiberglass pipes jacked on a large-diameter tunnel project in Warsaw are supplied by HOBAS and, with an outside diameter of 118 inches, are the largest CCFRPM pipes made to date.

Trenchless technology was chosen because of the river crossing, but also because the pipeline route runs beneath a six-lane road. It is in this section that a single drive of nearly 3,000 feet broke the record of longest single drive for the project. Jacking challenges included the close proximity to a subway. At one location, the clearance between the jacked pipeline and the subway was only 2 feet.

Q: What characteristics of fiberglass pipe made it particularly suitable for this project?

A: Fiberglass was not the least expensive piping material for the project, but the higher material cost was outweighed by other savings. For example, a 30-percent reduction in soil extraction was possible because of the high-strength thin-walled product, which allows for a smaller outside diameter for the same inside diameter compared with other types of pipe. Construction equipment could be kept small and to a minimum, which was crucial in this tight space. Fast onsite assembly, long life expectancy, and low maintenance all factored into the cost analysis.

The tunneling progressed at an average of 9 feet per hour with the separator processing 76 tons of soil per hour. The cycle time between pipes (disassembly and reassembly of electric cables, slurry pipes, and hydraulic hoses) takes 40 to 60 minutes. At this rate, an average of 10 pipes could be installed per day. Because of the rapid production, it was possible to complete the first section of pipe installation weeks ahead of schedule.

Q: What performance properties of fiberglass pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: The smooth and even outer surface of fiberglass pipe helped the contractor breeze through one of the project challenges. Original plans called for a 2,800-foot section to be jacked from both ends and meet in the middle. However, when using CCFRPM pipes, the construction plan could be modified so that the section was jacked precisely with one single drive and from one side only.

In addition to the friction-free outer wall, the inside wall of fiberglass pipe is also friction free and provides for higher flow rates for a given diameter. Fiberglass pipe is inherently corrosion resistant and of a light weight material with a high strength-to-weight ratio that allows the use of less costly pipe shipping and handling equipment.

Fiberglass Pipe Manufacturers

Ameron Fiberglass-Composite Pipe Group/USA
www.ameron-fpg.com

Future Pipe Industries, Inc.
www.futurepipe.com/usa

HOBAS Pipe USA
www.hobaspipe.com

U.S. Composite Pipe Co.
www.uscompositepipe.com

Information contributed by the Fiberglass Tank & Pipe Institute (www.fiberglasstankandpipe.com).

 

Polyethylene pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recentsignificant project that usedpolyethylene pipe.

Only small entrance and exit openings are required to install a new HDPE pipe system such as this one in Palo Alto, Calif.

A: The city of Palo Alto, Calif., is implementing a conversion of its entire 214-mile potable water system with high-performance PE4710 polyethylene (HDPE) pipe using horizontal directional drilling (HDD). Installation of the HDPE pipe system will eliminate leaking, corroding, and broader failures of the existing system that is currently posing threats of supply cut-offs, flooding from water main breaks, and line failures due to shifting soils in this earthquake-prone area. The use of trenchless installation techniques will result in minimum traffic and pedestrian disruption along with accelerating the completion of this significant endeavor. The manager of water, gas, and wastewater engineering in Palo Alto promoted the PE4710 pipe based on his knowledge, success, and history with HDPE pipe systems for gas distribution lines initially installed there in the mid-1980s. Existing data, along with a recently published industry report (available at www.plasticpipe.org), confirm an expected service lifetime extending well beyond other types of materials that were initially installed or used to patch or rehab the system.

Q: What characteristics of polyethylene pipe made it particularly suitable for this project?

A: HDPE pipe is highly ductile, tough, and durable. It doesn’t rust and is light weight for easier installation. HDPE pipe does not support internal build up so it is unaffected by constriction caused by tuberculation of mineral deposits. An HDPE pipe system, which includes the pipe, fittings, and valves, is connected using heat fusion that provides joints that are leak free, fully restrained, and earthquake resistant. HDPE pipe has a tighter bend radius than any other conventional pipe material, making it a preferred choice for trenchless installation techniques including HDD, sliplining, and pipe bursting. All of these techniques are far less disruptive to the environment and the public than open-cut installation. HDPE pipe takes less energy to produce, transport, and install, thus reducing its carbon footprint compared with other materials. Based on the water chemistry and operating parameters of Palo Alto, this HDPE pipe system is expected to last longer than 100 years.

Q: What performance properties of polyethylene pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: There are various grades of polyethylene used in pipe applications. Some meet ASTM standards such as PE2306, PE3406, and PE4710; AASHTO M252 and M294; or AWWA C901, C904, and C906. The resins used for these pipes are engineered for specific applications and performance criteria, so a design engineer has a greater choice when specifying pipe. Polyethylene pipe delivers a leak-free, fully self-restrained system for pressure pipe and watertight systems for gravity flow sewer systems. It can operate in hot water applications for plumbing and heating systems. Benefits including abrasion resistance, rust proof, and low carbon footprint make it a highly sustainable choice.

Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe Manufacturers

Advanced Drainage Systems. Inc.
www.ads-pipe.com

Armtec Ltd.
www.armtec.com

Baughman Tile Company, Inc.
www.baughmantile.com

Charter Plastics, Inc.
www.charterplastics.com

CONTECH Construction Products Inc.
www.contech-cpi.com

Crumpler Plastic Pipe
www.cpp-pipe.com

Endot Industries Inc.
www.endot.com

Flying W Plastics, Inc.
www.flyingwplastics.com

Fratco/Francesville Drain Tile Corp.
www.fratco.com

Hancor, Inc.
www.hancor.com

High Country Fusion
www.hcfusion.com

Independent Pipe Products Inc.
http://independentpipeproducts.com

Industrial Pipe Fittings, LLC
www.hdpefittings.com 

IPEX Inc. 
www.ipexamerica.com 

JM Eagle
www.jmeagle.com 

Lamson Pipe
www.lamsonpipe.com

Lane Enterprises Inc.
www.lane-enterprises.com

National Pipe & Plastics, Inc.
www.nationalpipe.com

Pacific Corrugated Pipe Co.
www.pcpipe.com

Performance Pipe
www.performancepipe.com

Plastic Tubing Industries
www.ptifla.com

PolyPipe, Inc.
www.polypipeinc.com

Prinsco, Inc.
www.prinsco.com

Quality Culvert
www.qualityculvert.com

Southeast Culvert
www.southeastculvert.com 

Springfield Plastics, Inc.
www.spipipe.com

TIMEWELL
www.timewellpipe.com

WL Plastics
www.wlplastics.com

Wyatt Resources, Inc.
www.wyattresources.com

Information contributed by the Plastics Pipe Institute, Inc. (www.plasticpipe.org).

 

PVC pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recentsignificant project or projectsthat used PVC pipe.

PVC pipe is specified for water, gravity sewer, force mains, reclaimed water, and stormwater projects.

A: PVC pipe is used every year in thousands of small- and large-diameter (4 to 48 inches) projects across North America. Some of the many recent projects installed include: 1) Columbus, Ind. — 10,000 feet of 30-inch AWWA C905 force main; 2) Waco, Texas — 45,000 feet of 42/36-inch ASTM F679 solid-wall gravity sewer pipe, as well as 47,000 feet of 20-inch AWWA C905 reclaimed water main; and 3) Manteca, Calif. — 10,000 feet of 24-inch C905 water main. These projects are typical of the many PVC applications specified for water, gravity sewer, force mains, reclaimed water, and stormwater projects. More than 2 million miles of PVC water and sewer pipe have been installed during the last 50 years.

Q: What characteristics of PVC pipe made it particularly suitable for these projects?

A: Utilities and engineering consultants specify PVC for many reasons, including its economical and environmental sustainability, exceptional durability, corrosion resistance, and ease of installation. Moreover, multiple PVC manufacturers provide pipe through distributors, guaranteeing a high level of competition, which translates into lower costs to utilities and ratepayers. Deep-socketed bell and spigot joints provide a proven and leak-free design that is well suited for both water and sewer applications. Color-coded pipe helps differentiate the utilities for field identification. PVC pipe can be used for a variety of trenchless and restraint applications, as well as for the most difficult project design and site conditions. Its many sustainable qualities make it ideal for the environment and long-term asset management of water and wastewater systems. Use of corrosion-proof PVC piping means fewer leaks, better water conservation, and lower replacement and maintenance costs.

Q: What performance propertiesof PVC pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: PVC pipe is flexible, long-lasting, and corrosion-proof; it doesn’t need coatings, liners, or other materials to ensure its strength or sustainability. It meets all applicable engineering standards (including AWWA and ASTM), as well as rigorous independent quality control, testing, and certification requirements. PVC’s light weight reduces transportation and installation costs, and it is also completely recyclable, though most of it has yet to enter the recycling stream given its durability. Technical assistance and a complete standards list of PVC pipe products are available from the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association at www.uni-bell.org.

PVC Pipe Manufacturers

American Pipe & Plastics, Inc.
www.ampipe.com

CertainTeed Corp.
www.certainteed.com/products/pipe

CONTECH Construction Products Inc.
www.contech-cpi.com

Diamond Plastics Corp.
www.dpcpipe.com

Flying W Plastics, Inc.
www.flyingwplastics.com

Fratco/Francesville Drain Tile Corp.
www.fratco.com

IPEX Inc.
www.ipexamerica.com

JM Eagle
www.jmeagle.com

National Pipe & Plastics, Inc.
www.nationalpipe.com

North American Pipe Corp.
www.northamericanpipe.com 

Northern Pipe Products
www.northernpipe.com

Pipelife Jet Stream, Inc.
www.pipelife-jetstream.com

Royal Pipe Systems
www.royalpipe.com

Sanderson Pipe
www.sandersonpipe.com

Information contributed by the Uni-Bell PVC Pipe Association (www.uni-bell.org).

 

Vitrified clay pipe

Q: Briefly describe a recent significant project that used vitrified clay pipe.

A: Today’s clay pipe is being used in ways not thought possible 50 years ago. In the Sacramento, Calif., area, it was recently installed using a combination of standard open-cut practices with controlled low-strength materials (CLSM) as bedding and trenchless methods. In some locations, it was placed at 60-foot depths with 40 feet of groundwater above the pipe. Vitrified clay pipe has proven to be a versatile material for the construction of sanitary sewers and is providing new and interesting design solutions for a variety of tough engineering challenges.

Q: What characteristics of vitrified clay pipe made it particularly suitable for this project?

A: There were several reasons vitrified clay pipe was chosen on this project. The first is the durability and long life of clay pipe. The structure clay pipe provides in the trench and the inherent strength of the material were also critical for this project. It is the longest-lasting pipe for gravity sewer applications. All other materials change throughout time, but vitrified clay pipe is unaffected by hazards that can cause corrosion or changes in a material’s physical properties. The ability to use variable bedding systems and installation methods also allows engineers to design for the specific conditions.

Q: What performance properties of vitrified clay pipe set it apart from other types of pipe?

A: Nothing lasts longer or performs better than vitrified clay pipe properly installed. It is the most sustainable of pipe products because of the natural raw materials and low energy consumption during the manufacturing process. Its inherent chemical resistance and superior joint performance make it the premier material available for the construction of truly sustainable infrastructure. The demonstrated long life and simplicity of design also give the engineer confidence in the long-term viability and utility of the project once installed.

Vitrified Clay Pipe Manufacturers

Building Products Co.
www.buildingproductscompany.com

Can Clay Corp.
www.canclay.com

Gladding, McBean
www.gladdingmcbean.com

Logan Clay Products Co.
www.loganclaypipe.com

Mission Clay Products
www.missionclay.com
www.no-dig-pipe.com

Superior Clay Corp.
www.superiorclay.com

Information contributed by the National Clay Pipe Institute (www.ncpi.org).

 

New steel pipe

Ameron has completed manufacture of 120-inch-diameter segments for the inaugural installation of patent-pending pressure-cast steel pipe (PCSP) in a pipeline project for the Gila River Indian Community near Phoenix. The PCSP for this project is mortar-coated. PCSP can also be coated with a dielectric tape or paint for applications requiring cathodic protection.

Mortar coating on pressure-cast steel pipe for the Gila River Indian Community siphon is ready for water cure.

PCSP is manufactured by fabricating a water-tight steel cylinder, then casting a relatively thin (D/50+) concrete or mortar lining inside the cylinder under pressure so the cylinder is stressed in tension. The lining casting pressure is set at a value calculated to cause the cylinder in the resulting pipe to remain in tension after all modular strain, creep, and shrinkage of the lining have occurred. After the lining is cured, the casting pressure is released, allowing the cylinder to compress the lining. The steel cylinder and mortar/concrete lining act as a composite wall instead of as laminar rings during handling, transportation, installation, and backfilling of the pipe. The extra stiffness produced by the composite PCSP wall design results in a pipe that is approximately 40 times stiffer than ordinary large-diameter steel pipe, making PCSP much more resistant to locally deforming loads.

The extra stiffness of PCSP allows the pipe to be transported without struts or plastic end caps, and to be installed with rubber gasket joints regardless of the pipe diameter. The pipe is also stiff enough to resist high-energy soil compaction efforts without damage. Low-stiffness pipe typically requires use of an imported bedding material such as sand, soil cement, or other free-flowing bedding that will develop structural support for the pipe without pipe-damaging compactive energy. PCSP’s inherent stiffness allows heavy compaction of the pipe bedding material without damage to the pipe, so that even many clays can be used as pipe bedding.

In August 2009, Ameron installed a 3/16-inch-thick cylinder, 120-inch-diameter test section of PCSP by bedding the pipe in poorly consolidated (85 percent Proctor) clay and then loading the pipe with 750,000 pounds. The pipe deflected approximately 1.7 percent and sustained minor cracking in the pipe lining that would autogenously heal if the pipe is filled with water. (For most applications, Ameron recommends bedding the pipe in a manner that will ensure support under the pipe haunch.)

The Gila River installation will be used for an inverted siphon. Working pressures for this pipeline are low, but the large diameter of the pipe would ordinarily dictate a steel cylinder thickness of at least 1/2 inch for mortar-lined pipe to act as an adequate form for the bedding material. The stiff PCSP design allows the rubber-gasketed pipe cylinder to be reduced to that needed to contain a maximum working pressure of 30 psi, for a resulting cylinder thickness of 0.105 inch.
— Information provided by Ameron

 

Steel Pipe Manufacturers

American SpiralWeld Pipe Co., LLC
www.acipco.com/aswp

Ameron International
www.ameron.com

Hanson Pressure Pipe
www.hansonpressurepipe.com

Jifco
www.jifco.com

Naylor Pipe
www.naylorpipe.com

Northwest Pipe Co.
www.nwpipe.com

Roscoe Moss Co.
www.roscoemoss.com

Skyline Steel
www.skylinesteel.com

Trinity Steel & Pipe, Inc.
www.trinitysteelandpipe.com

 

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